European Surveillance of Antibiotic Resistance (ESAR)

A Study of the European Society of Biomodulation and Chemotherapy

Alert organisms

Participating centers scan all specimen tested for the occurence of resistant phenotypes shown in the table below. The number of resistant phenotypes found and denominator data on the total number of specimen tested are reported monthly to the ESBiC Data Center in Munich where they are compiled, analyzed and published on this web site as well as in journals. Information gatherered on Alert organisms include patient demographics, antibiotic treatment, underlying disease and infections and various risk factors.

ORGANISM

RESISTANT PHENOTYPE

b-haemolytic Streptococci Erythromycin
Penicillin
Glycopeptide
Pneumococci High level Penicllin
Low level Penicillin
Erythromycin
Glycopeptide
Enterococci b-lactamase
Glycopeptide
High level Gentamicin/Streptomycin
Haemophilus Ciprofloxacin/4-fluoroquinolone
Ceftazidime/3rd- or 4th-generation cephalosporin
b-lactamase
Enterobacteriaciae Ciprofloxacin/4-fluoroquinolone
Gentamicin/1st line aminoglycoside
Extended spectrum b-lactamase
Carbapenem
Acinetobacter Gentamicin/1st line aminoglycoside
Carbapenem
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA
Vancomycin
Teicoplanin
Cholera Trimethoprim
Tetracycline
Campylobacter Ciprofloxacin
2 drug combination
Shigella Ciprofloxacin
2 drug combination
Salmonella Ciprofloxacin
2 drug combination
N. meningitidis Penicillin
N. gonorrhoea b-lactamase
Ciprofloxacin/4-fluoroquinolone
Anaerobes Augmentin/b-lactamase inhibitor combination
Carbapenem
Metronidazole
M. tuberculosis 2 drug combination
coagulase negative Staphylococci Vancomycin
Teicoplanin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Ceftazidime/4th generation cephalosporin
Piperacillin/Tazobactam
Gentamicin/1st line aminoglycoside

 


ESBiC Datacenter Munich, 1999